there can be another explanation to the redshift than the expansion of the universe. as empty space is not totally empty, has mass and gravity, then it has effect on time. the more mass and gravity is between distant objects, the more it slows time, which creates the redshift of distant galaxies. no expansion of universe means no “dark” energy needed, to account for the expansion. this makes perfect sense while considering that background gravity is uniformly distributed, coming from quantum fluctuations in empty space. it is slowing the passing time (speed of entropy) just enough to stretch the light into longer wavelengths. the redshift of distant galaxies could be due to dragging of the light.
there may be something missing in this idea.. but maybe not. i have made mistakes before, in case of the redshift, thus i must think more and learn again about some things in physics — especially to find out if the textbook theories still hold true or are already considered inadequate.
by the way, some of the errors in my previous posts i don’t correct, to see myself later how my thinking and knowledge has evolved. as i’m not a professionally trained physicist then i can permit to myself to have errors in my descriptions of reality — i have no job of a professor to lose, nor degrees or tenures. nevertheless i do my best to get to the truth, and to correct at least the errors of syntax.. and also expressions of thoughts, adding clarifying comments if necessary.. in some older posts as well from time to time.